1. Restraint (=Yama) – are the eternal vows or abstentions which are essentially to be observed in all spirits by the Sadhak = Yogi. These are five in number :
a. Non-Violence (=Ahinsa) that is to performed always, in all respects i.e. by words, by thinking, by action of body towards every living being;
b. Veracity (=Satya) = non-lying;
c. Abstinence from Theft (=Aasteya) = non-covetousness;
d. Continence (=Brahmcharya) = non-sexuality; and
e. Abstinence from avariciousness (=Aaprigriha) = non-possiveness (Sutra 30).
These Restraints (=Yamas are to be performed always, under all circumstances, without any excuses.
2. Observances (=Niyama) – these are five observances, namely
a. Cleanliness (=Sauch) – purity for mind and body as well;
b. Contentment (=Santosha);
c. Purficatory Action (=Tapa) – austerity;
d. Study (=Swadhyaya) – Study of books explaining salvation i.e the process of detachment of soul from matter and Study of Self and / or God.
e. Surrender to GOD (=Ishwar-pranidhan) (Sutra 32).
3. Posture (=Asana) – Yogic posture mainly the Sidhasan, Padmasan or Ardh-padmasan used for meditation.
4. Regulation of Breath (=Pranayama) – Suspending or Controlling Breadth and is four types. With the success of Pranayama, yogi gets the ability to concentrate the mind (Chitta) and traces of Nescience (=Avidya) also reduces in the mind.
5. Abstraction (=Pratyahara) – means Withdrawal of senses from external objects / outside world.
6. Concentration (=Dharna) – means fixing the affairs of mind (Chittah) on a single particular object and / or subject.
7. Meditation (=Dhyana) – means intense contemplation of the nature of object and / or subject of concentration.
8. Trance (=Samadhi) – means complete merging consciousness with the object and / or subject of medication, i.e. knowing the medicated object / subject only, in complete terms, and forgetting oneself.